Nigeria’s mining sector is diverse in mineral resources including high value commodities. ASM accounts for over 90% of solid minerals mining in the country and is a vital livelihood for thousands of people across Nigeria (GUES 2011, 11). Estimates of direct employment provided by the sector vary from 400,000 (AMDC 2017; Oramah et al. 2015) to 500,000 people (Azubike 2009; Government of Nigeria 2009; Pulse 2019) with most individuals driven to the sector because of lack of alternative employment opportunities. ASM activity occurs in multiple regions across the country with varying compositions of mining populations (e.g., traditional livelihood for indigenous communities, migrant populations from neighboring countries, seasonal mining participation by farmers) and minerals (e.g., gold, cassiterite, coltan, gemstones). Read more in the Nigeria Country Profile.