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Tanzania

Tanzania has a great number and variety of mineral resources, including gold, diamonds, development minerals and colored gemstones. Some of these are unique to the country like tanzanite. While since independence in 1961 artisanal miners have worked most of these deposits, from the late 1990s onwards both large-scale mining and ASM have grown rapidly. It is estimated between 1-1.5 million people are directly working in ASM, of which two thirds are gold miners. Read more in the Tanzania Country Profile

1,000,000

Number of People
Working in ASM

Members of the Tanzania Women Miners Association gem mining in the Umba Valley in the Tanga Province, Tanzania.
© Pact

Estimates on the number of people directly employed in artisanal and small-scale mining in Tanzania vary with the most recent estimate stating between 1 million (Hruschka 2015, 110) to 1.5 million miners (UNECA 2011, 69). As a comparison, the formal Tanzanian mining and quarrying sector (inclusive of minerals, oil and gas) was estimated to employ 35,900 people in 2016 (TEITI 2019, 9) with the most recent large-scale mining sector estimate in 2008 reported at 8,733 people (URT 2008 cited by Nyankweli 2012).

In Tanzania, the ASM sector is characterized by a three-tiered organization (Merket 2019). Primary Mining License (PML) holders often play a role of financiers and subcontract the management of mining operations to pit owners (Bryceson and Geenen 2016). The latter hire diggers and workers and provide them with food and equipment. Most of the ASM population is constituted by casual and highly mobile workers. Pit owners are usually the one baring most of the investments and risk (Merket 2019, 33). Revenues are generally distributed through Production Sharing Agreements (PSAs) rather than fixed wages paid in cash. Read more in the Tanzania Country Profile

Employment

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Alert!

The data presented in this Version 1 of the Delve platform are from secondary sources and reflect data availability on the ASM sector. All data, countries and minerals are not yet represented. Data will be added on an ongoing basis as the global data gap on ASM continues to be filled. Visualizations created with Highcharts.com under a Creative Commons (CC) Attribution-NonCommercial license.

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